History of Nigeria

The history of Nigeria can be traced to settlers trading across the middle East and Africa as early as 1100 BC. Numerous ancient African civilizations settled in the region that is known today as Nigeria, such as the Kingdom of Nri,[1] the Benin Empire,[2] and the Oyo Empire.[3] Islam reached Nigeria through the Bornu Empire between (1068 AD) and Hausa States around (1385 AD) during the 11th century,[4][5][6][7] while Christianity came to Nigeria in the 15th century through Augustinian and Capuchin monks from Portugal.[8] The Songhai Empire also occupied part of the region.[9] From the 15th century, European slave traders arrived in the region to purchase enslaved Africans as part of the Atlantic slave trade, which started in the region of modern-day Nigeria; the first Nigerian port used by European slave traders was Badagry, a coastal harbour.[10][11] Local merchants provided them with slaves, escalating conflicts among the ethnic groups in the region and disrupting older trade patterns through the Trans-Saharan route.[12]

Lagos was occupied by British forces in 1851 and formally annexed by Britain in the year 1865.[13] Nigeria became a British protectorate in 1901. The period of British rule lasted until 1960, when an independence movement led to the country being granted independence.[14]Nigeria first became a republic in 1963, but succumbed to military rule three years later, after a bloody coup d’état. A separatist movement later formed the Republic of Biafra in 1967, leading to the three-year Nigerian Civil War.[15] Nigeria became a republic again after a new constitution was written in 1979. However, the republic was short-lived, as the military seized power again in 1983 and later ruled for ten years. A new republic was planned to be established in 1993, but was aborted by General Sani Abacha. Abacha died in 1998 and a fourth republic was later established the following year, which ended three decades of intermittent military rule.[16][17]

Photo Showing States in Nigeria by Geography


  1. ^ Team, Editorial (2018-12-12). “The Nri Kingdom (900AD – Present): Rule by theocracy”Think Africa. Retrieved 2022-02-20.
  2. ^ “The kingdom of Benin”BBC Bitesize. Retrieved 2022-02-20.
  3. ^ “Kingdom of Oyo (ca. 1500-1837) •”. 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2022-02-20.
  4. ^ “Table content, Nigeria”country studies. 20 August 2001.
  5. ^ “Historic regions from 5th century BC to 20th century”History World. 29 May 2011. Archived from the originalon 3 October 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  6. ^ “A short Nigerian history”Study country. 25 May 2010.
  7. ^ “About the Country Nigeria The History”Nigeria Government Federal Website. 1 October 2006. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  8. ^ “Religion: Islam and Christianity, which came first in Nigeria? – Opera News”ng.opera.news. Retrieved 2022-02-20.
  9. ^ “Songhai | World Civilization”courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  10. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2020-04-17. Retrieved 2019-08-25.
  11. ^ “The Transatlantic Slave Trade”rlp.hds.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 2020-06-10. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  12. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2020-06-10. Retrieved 2019-08-25.
  13. ^ Chioma, Unini (2020-02-01). “When I Remember Nigeria, I Remember Democracy! By Hameed Ajibola Jimoh Esq”TheNigeriaLawyer. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  14. ^ “Nigerian Diaspora and Remittances: Transparency and market development”Nigerian Diaspora and Remittances: Transparency and market development. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  15. ^ Obasanjo, Olusegun (1980). My Command: an account of the Nigeria Civil War 1967–1970. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0435902490.
  16. ^ “Nigeria’s Fourth Republic and the Challenge of a Faltering Democratization”asq.africa.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  17. ^ “Nigeria’s fourth republic and the challenge of a faltering democratization”ResearchGate. Retrieved 2020-05-30.

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